Types of Batteries picked up by Planet Green
NiCad makes an efficient and very cost-effective source of rechargeable power for a wide range of portable electrical and electronics equipment: cordless power tools and appliances, test instruments, radio transceivers, model boats, cars and aircraft, etc.
Nickel-cadmium rechargeable cells are constructed of alternating layers of porous, negative cadmium anode and porous, positive nickel oxide cathode separated by absorbent layers, all permeated by electrolyte and surrounded by a nickel-plated steel case.”
Nickel Metal Hydride
Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH, NiMH) rechargeable batteries are the next level up from NiCad. The biggest advantage is their ability to accept a charge at any time without suffering the 'memory effect'. Thus are the ideal choice for digital cameras, torches, and as general replacement for standard NiCad or Alkaline batteries.
- Nickel-metal hydride cells contain a high capacity anode made of a hydrogen storage metal alloy.
- The cathode is nickel oxide, and the electrolyte is an aqueous potassium hydroxide solution.
- The spirally wound electrodes are separated by a synthetic, non-woven material and are sealed into a cylindrical nickel-plated steel can.
- Providing up to 1000 cycles, with metal hydride cells are stable and have built-in protection against overcharging and abuse.
Lithium ion are the most recent battery types in the market. They give high cell voltage and greater capacity for a given volume, and this is why they are especially suitable for hand held equipment where long operating times are important, such as mobile phones and Camcorders.
- Like a primary lithium cell, the lithium- ion cell design is a wound electrode structure with positive and negative electrodes separated by a micro porous separator and immersed in a non-aqueous medium containing dissolved salts, which is the electrolyte.
- The positive electrode consists of a metal oxide material that can absorb and desorbs lithium ions and electrons. However, the negative electrode consists of a sheet of carbon that can also absorb and desorbs active lithium, replacing the lithium metal negative of primary lithium system. This improvement is what allows lithium-ion to be a rechargeable system with a long cycle life.
DURACELL® PRISMATICS™ is a new line of batteries with a flat, rectangular shape to power emerging digital cameras and portable digital audio devices; two of the fastest growing device categories.
DURACELL® LP1 is the first-ever alkaline prismatic battery designed specifically for power portable digital audio devices, including MP3 players and portable CD and MiniDisc players.
|Nominal Voltage:||1.5 volts|
|Typical Voltage Range:||0.8 - 1.5 volts|
|Nominal Impedance:||0.12 Ohms @ 1 kHz|
|Average Weight:||25 g|
|Typical Capacity:||1.5 Ah @ 100 mA to 0.8 V|
|Operating Temp. Range:||-20 to 54 degrees C|
DURACELL® CP1 is the first-ever high-power lithium primary prismatic battery designed specifically for digital cameras.
|Nominal Voltage:||3 volts|
|Voltage Range:||1.5 - 3.2 volts|
|Nominal Impedance:||0.2 Ohms @ 1 kHz|
|Average Weight:||28 g|
|Operating Temp. Range:||-10 to 60 degrees C|
These are Alkaline batteries of smaller sizes used for car locking remotes, medical devices, toys, etc.
Lithium-iodide and lead-iodide are used in cameras because of their ability to supply a constant power flow. With a very good power-to-weight ratio, Lithium batteries are often found in high-end laptop computers and cell phones. While Lithium cells deliver higher voltage than Alkaline cells, capacity is not necessarily higher.
Lithium is the lightest of all metals. Lithium makes an ideal anode material as it can oxidize (give out electrons) better than any other material available for use in power cells. Unlike Zinc in alkaline cells, Lithium, due to its reactivity, cannot be processed into powdered form. Rather, to create high surface area, Lithium is formed into thin sheets, like tin foil. The solid cathode of Manganese dioxide is also formed into thin sheets, which is permeated by the electrolyte.
Lithium can also be used with either a solid or liquid cathode. When used with a solid cathode, lithium cells are highly stable. Lithium cells have other ideal characteristics:
- Virtually unlimited shelf life- one measured in decades
- Resistance to temperature changes
This battery is the most commonly used in watches, laser pointers and other similar devices because the power-to-weight ratio is good.
The chemistry of a zinc air cell is similar to an alkaline cell.